Using the const Keyword in C++ Programs

C++ extends const to include classes and member functions. In a C++ class definition, use the const modifier following a member function declaration. The member function is prevented from modifying any data in the class.

A class object defined with the const keyword attempts to use only member functions that are also defined with const. If you call a member function that is not defined as const, the compiler issues a warning that a non-const function is being called for a const object. Using the const keyword in this manner is a safety feature of C++.

Warning: A pointer can indirectly modify a const variable, as in the following:

*(int *)&maxint = 35;

If you use the const modifier with a pointer parameter in a function's parameter list, the function cannot modify the variable that the pointer points to. For example,

int printf (const char *format, ...);

printf is prevented from modifying the format string.

volatile ;


Use the volatile modifier to indicate that a variable can be changed by a background routine, an interrupt routine, or an I/O port. Declaring an object to be volatile warns the compiler not to make assumptions concerning the value of the object while evaluating expressions in which it occurs because the value could change at any moment. It also prevents the compiler from making the variable a register variable

volatile int ticks;

void timer( ) {
void wait (int interval) {
ticks = 0;
while (ticks < interval); // Do nothing


The routines in this example (assuming timer has been properly associated with a hardware clock interrupt) implement a timed wait of ticks specified by the argument interval. A highly optimizing compiler might not load the value of ticks inside the test of the while loop since the loop doesn’t change the value of ticks.

Note: C++ extends volatile to include classes and member functions. If you’ve declared a volatile object, you can use only its volatile member functions.

pascal, _pascal, __pascal

pascal ;

_pascal ;

__pascal ;


Use the pascal, _pascal, and __pascal keywords to declare a variable or a function using a Pascal-style naming convention (the name is in uppercase).

In addition, pascal declares Pascal-style parameter-passing conventions when applied to a function header (parameters pushed left to right; the called function cleans up the stack).

In C++ programs, functions declared with the pascal modifer will still be mangled.

_stdcall, __stdcall




The _stdcall and __stdcall keywords force the compiler to generate function calls using the Standard calling convention. Functions must pass the correct number and type of arguments; this is unlike normal C use, which permits a variable number of function arguments. Such functions comply with the standard WIN32 argument-passing convention.
_fastcall, __fastcall

return-value _fastcall function-name(parm-list)

return-value __fastcall function-name(parm-list)


Use the __fastcall modifier to declare functions that expect parameters to be passed in registers. The first three parameters are passed (from left to right) in EAX, EDX, and ECX, if they fit in the register. The registers are not used if the parameter is a floating-point or struct type.

The compiler treats this calling convention as a new language specifier, along the lines of _cdecl and _pascal

Functions declared using _cdecl or _pascal cannot also have the _fastcall modifiers because they use the stack to pass parameters.

The compiler prefixes the __fastcall function name with an at-sign ("@"). This prefix applies to both unmangled C function names and to mangled C++ function names.
__thread, multithread variables

C++Builder keyword extensions


The keyword __thread is used in multithread programs to preserve a unique copy of global and static class variables. Each program thread maintains a private copy of a __thread variable for each thread.

The syntax is Type __thread variable__name. For example

int __thread x;

declares an integer type variable that will be global but private to each thread in the program in which the statement occurs.

Function modifiers
This section presents descriptions of the C++Builder function modifiers

You can use the __declspec(dllexport), and __declspec(dllimport) modifiers to modify functions.

In 32-bit programs the keyword can be applied to class, function, and variable declarations

The __declspec(dllexport) modifier makes the function exportable from Windows. The __declspec(dllimport) modifier makes a function available to a Windows program. The keywords are used in an executable (if you don't use smart callbacks) or in a DLL.

Functions declared with the __fastcall modifier have different names than their non-__fastcall counterparts. The compiler prefixes the __fastcall function name with an @. This prefix applies to both unmangled C function names and to mangled C++ function names.


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