Transactions

A transaction is a group of actions that must all be carried out successfully on one or more tables in a database before they are committed (made permanent). If any of the actions in the group fails, then all actions are rolled back (undone).
Transactions protect against hardware failures that occur in the middle of a database command or set of commands. They also form the basis of multi-user concurrency control on SQL servers. When each user interacts with the database only through transactions, one user’s commands can’t disrupt the unity of another user’s transaction. Instead, the SQL server schedules incoming transactions, which either succeed as a whole or fail as a whole.

Although transaction support is not part of most local databases, the BDE drivers provide limited transaction support for some of these databases. For SQL servers and ODBC-compliant databases, the database transaction support is provided by the component that represents the database connection. In multi-tiered applications, you can create transactions that include actions other than database operations or that span multiple databases.

Using transactions
A transaction is a group of actions that must all be carried out successfully on one or more tables in a database before they are committed (made permanent). If one of the actions in the group fails, then all actions are rolled back (undone). By using transactions, you ensure that the database is not left in an inconsistent state when a problem occurs completing one of the actions that make up the transaction.
For example, in a banking application, transferring funds from one account to another is an operation you would want to protect with a transaction. If, after decrementing the balance in one account, an error occurred incrementing the balance in the other, you want to roll back the transaction so that the database still reflects the correct total balance.

By default, the BDE provides implicit transaction control for your applications. When an application is under implicit transaction control, a separate transaction is used for each record in a dataset that is written to the underlying database. Implicit transactions guarantee both a minimum of record update conflicts and a consistent view of the database. On the other hand, because each row of data written to a database takes place in its own transaction, implicit transaction control can lead to excessive network traffic and slower application performance. Also, implicit transaction control will not protect logical operations that span more than one record, such as the transfer of funds described previously.

If you explicitly control transactions, you can choose the most effective times to start, commit, and roll back your transactions. When you develop applications in a multi-user environment, particularly when your applications run against a remote SQL server, you should control transactions explicitly.

Working with (connection) transactions

The TADOConnection component includes a number of methods and events for working with transactions. These transaction capabilities are shared by all of the ADO command and dataset components using the data store connection

1.Using transaction methods
Use the methods BeginTrans, CommitTrans, and RollbackTrans to perform transaction processing. BeginTrans starts a transaction in the data store associated with the ADO connection component. CommitTrans commits a currently active transaction, saving changes to the database and ending the transaction. RollbackTrans cancels a currently active transaction, abandoning all changes made during the transaction and ending the transaction. Read the InTransaction property to determine at any given point whether the connection component has a transaction open.

A transaction started by the connection component is shared by all command and dataset components that use the connection established by the TADOConnection component.
2.Using transaction events
The ADO connection component provides a number of events for detecting when transaction-related processes have been completed. These events indicate when a transaction process initiated by a BeginTrans, CommitTrans, and RollbackTrans method have been successfully completed at the data store.
The OnBeginTransComplete event is triggered when the data store has successfully started a transaction after a call to the connection component’s BeginTrans method. The OnCommitTransComplete event is triggered after a transaction is successfully committed due to a call to CommitTrans. And OnRollbackTransComplete is triggered after a transaction is successfully committed due to a call to RollbackTrans.

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